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Cyber Law (IT Law)

Cyber Law also called IT Law is the law regarding Information-technology including computers and internet. It is related to legal informatics and supervises the digital circulation of information, software, information security and e-commerce.

IT law does not consist a separate area of law rather it encloses aspects of contract, intellectual property, privacy and data protection laws. Intellectual property is a key element of IT law. The area of software licence is controversial and still evolving in Europe and elsewhere.

According to Ministry of Electronic and Information Technology, Government of India :

Cyber Laws yields legal recognition to electronic documents and a structure to support e-filing and e-commerce transactions and also provides a legal structure to reduce, check cyber crimes.

Importance of Cyber Law:

  1. It covers all transaction over internet.

  2. It keeps eyes on all activities over internet.

  3. It touches every action and every reaction in cyberspace.

Area of Cyber Law:

Cyber laws contain different types of purposes. Some laws create rules for how individuals and companies may use computers and the internet while some laws protect people from becoming the victims of crime through unscrupulous activities on the internet. The major areas of cyber law include:

  1. Fraud:
    Consumers depend on cyber laws to protect them from online fraud. Laws are made to prevent identity theft, credit card theft and other financial crimes that happen online. A person who commits identity theft may face confederate or state criminal charges. They might also encounter a civil action brought by a victim. Cyber lawyers work to both defend and prosecute against allegations of fraud using the internet.

  2. Copyright:
    The internet has made copyright violations easier. In early days of online communication, copyright violations was too easy. Both companies and individuals need lawyers to bring actions to impose copyright protections. Copyright violation is an area of cyber law that protects the rights of individuals and companies to profit from their own creative works.

  3. Defamation:
    Several personnel use the internet to speak their mind. When people use the internet to say things that are not true, it can cross the line into defamation. Defamation laws are civil laws that save individuals from fake public statements that can harm a business or someone’s personal reputation. When people use the internet to make statements that violate civil laws, that is called Defamation law.

  4. Harassment and Stalking:
    Sometimes online statements can violate criminal laws that forbid harassment and stalking. When a person makes threatening statements again and again about someone else online, there is violation of both civil and criminal laws. Cyber lawyers both prosecute and defend people when stalking occurs using the internet and other forms of electronic communication.

  5. Freedom of Speech:
    Freedom of speech is an important area of cyber law. Even though cyber laws forbid certain behaviors online, freedom of speech laws also allow people to speak their minds. Cyber lawyers must advise their clients on the limits of free speech including laws that prohibit obscenity. Cyber lawyers may also defend their clients when there is a debate about whether their actions consist of permissible free speech.

  6. Trade Secrets:
    Companies doing businesses online often depend on cyber laws to protect their trade secrets. For example, Google and other online search engines spend lots of time developing the algorithms that produce search results. They also spend a great deal of time developing other features like maps, intelligent assistance and flight search services to name a few. Cyber laws help these companies to take legal action as necessary in order to protect their trade secrets.

  7. Contracts and Employment Law:
    Every time you click a button that says you agree to the terms and conditions of using a website, you have used cyber law. There are terms and conditions for every website that are somehow related to privacy concerns.

Advantages of Cyber Law:

  • Organizations are now able to carry out e-commerce using the legal infrastructure provided by the Act.

  • Digital signatures have been given legal validity and sanction in the Act.

  • It has opened the doors for the entry of corporate companies for issuing Digital Signatures Certificates in the business of being Certifying Authorities.

  • It allows Government to issue notification on the web thus heralding e-governance.

  • It gives authority to the companies or organizations to file any form, application or any other document with any office, authority, body or agency owned or controlled by the suitable Government in e-form by means of such e-form as may be prescribed by the suitable Government.

  • The IT Act also addresses the important issues of security, which are so critical to the success of electronic transactions.

Cyber Security

Cyber security refers to the body of technologies, processes, and practices designed to protect networks, devices, programs, and data from attack, damage, or unauthorized access. Cyber security may also be referred to as information technology security.


Cyber security is important because government, military, corporate, financial, and medical organizations collect, process, and store unprecedented amounts of data on computers and other devices. A significant portion of that data can be sensitive information, whether that be intellectual property, financial data, personal information, or other types of data for which unauthorized access or exposure could have negative consequences. Organizations transmit sensitive data across networks and to other devices in the course of doing businesses, and cyber security describes the discipline dedicated to protecting that information and the systems used to process or store it. As the volume and sophistication of cyber attacks grow, companies and organizations, especially those that are tasked with safeguarding information relating to national security, health, or financial records, need to take steps to protect their sensitive business and personnel information. As early as March 2013, the nation’s top intelligence officials cautioned that cyber attacks and digital spying are the top threat to national security, eclipsing even terrorism.


For an effective cyber security, an organization needs to coordinate its efforts throughout its entire information system. Elements of cyber encompass all of the following:

  • Network security: The process of protecting the network from unwanted users, attacks and intrusions.

  • Application security: Apps require constant updates and testing to ensure these programs are secure from attacks.

  • Endpoint security: Remote access is a necessary part of business, but can also be a weak point for data. Endpoint security is the process of protecting remote access to a company’s network.

  • Data security: Inside of networks and applications is data. Protecting company and customer information is a separate layer of security.

  • Identity management: Essentially, this is a process of understanding the access every individual has in an organization.

  • Database and infrastructure security: Everything in a network involves databases and physical equipment. Protecting these devices is equally important.

  • Cloud security: Many files are in digital environments or “the cloud”. Protecting data in a 100% online environment presents a large amount of challenges.

  • Mobile security: Cell phones and tablets involve virtually every type of security challenge in and of themselves.

  • Disaster recovery/business continuity planning: In the event of a breach, natural disaster or other event data must be protected and business must go on. For this, you’ll need a plan.End-user education: Users may be employees accessing the network or customers logging on to a company app. Educating good habits (password changes, 2-factor authentication, etc.) is an important part of cybersecurity.

The most difficult challenge in cyber security is the ever-evolving nature of security risks themselves. Traditionally, organizations and the government have focused most of their cyber security resources on perimeter security to protect only their most crucial system components and defend against known treats. Today, this approach is insufficient, as the threats advance and change more quickly than organizations can keep up with. As a result, advisory organizations promote more proactive and adaptive approaches to cyber security. Similarly, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) issued guidelines in its risk assessment framework that recommend a shift toward continuous monitoring and real-time assessments, a data-focused approach to security as opposed to the traditional perimeter-based model.

Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence is sometimes called machine intelligence. It is intelligence demonstrated by machines. Computer Science defines Artificial Intelligence research as the study of intelligent agents. AI was founded ascan academic discipline in 1955. It has been divided into sub-fields based on technical considerations. It was founded on the assumption that human intelligence can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it.


The field of AI research was born at a workshop at Dartmouth college in 1956, where the term "AI" was coinedby John Mccarthy.

Machine learning

It is getting computers to programme themselves. Machine learning is automating the process of automation. Machine learning is like farming or gardening. Seeds stand for alogrithms, nutrients is the data, the gardener is you and plans is the programs.

Machine Learning Programme has 3 components:


Evaluation - accuracy, prediction and recall.


All machine learning alogrithms are the combination of these 3 components.

Types of Machine Learning

Supervised learning(Inductive learning)

Unsupervised Learning (clustering)

Semi supervised learning

Reinforcement learning.

Challenges and problems

Reasoning, knowledge representation, planning, learning, natural language processing, perception and the ability to move and manipulate


However in the 21st century AI techniques have experienced progress, following advances in computer power, large amounts of data and theoretical understanding. It has become an essential part of technology industry, helping to solve many challenging problems in Computer Science, Software Engineering and Operations Research.

Role of AI in Chatbot.

A chatbot is a Computer Program or an Artificial Intelligence software that can simulate a real human conversation with real-time responses to users based on reinforced learning. All chatbots either use text messages, voice commands or both. AI robots, use a natural language to communicate with artificial intelligence features embedded in them.

For eg. A simple bot orders take out. When someone texts the message"Order a pizza," the bot would hopefully organize the command"Order" and request"Pizza"


Searching for marketing trends related to the future is easy, if you have all the correct data and when it is in front of you. The job for businesses and brands after a certain point is to take the next leap and move forward. For AT and Chatbot, the future is coming one way or another, and that can't be avoided.

Neural Networks.

Neural networks, are used for solving many business problems such as sales forecasting, customer research, data validation and risk managent.Neural networks have made computer systems more useful by making them more human.

Neural networks are composed of layers of computational units called neurons, with connections in different layers. These net works transform data until they can classify an output. The key feature of neural networks is an interactive learning process in which records are presented to the network at a time. After all cases are presented, the process is often repeated.


High tolerance to noisy data.

Ability to classify patterns on which they have not been trained. Most popular neural net work alogrithm is the propogation alogrithm.


Difficult to understand in the beginning what goes on at each layer.

Popular types of neural networks and their usage


Convolutional Neuro Networks used in field as

Identifying faces

Self driving cars

Applying Neural Networks to different industries.

Neural Networks are being used for real world business problems such as-- sales forecasting, customer research, data validation and risk management, marketing, retail and sale, banking, Finance and Medicine

Cloud Computing

Cloud Computing is a combination of technologies that make up a network for the delivery of computing services. It requires hardware for infrastructural purposes and software to deluver the on-demand services over the internet. Cloud Computing allows people to use online services that are generally available, through any device, with an internet connection. This means that the user does not need to be at a certain lor take care of their own costly infra structure. Net is the very basis for the cloud to exist.

Cloud Sevice Providers

Airbnb, hospitality Services

Netflix, Video streaming

Zynga, Online games

Spotify, Music streaming

Adobe system, Creativity software

Application, On demand content streaming collaboration

Advantages of Cloud as a service

Benefit of infrastructure as a service (IaaS)

Cost efficient

Easily scalable

Pay for usage only.

Benefits of Platform as a Service (PaaS)

No maintenance

Manage via web interface


Benefits of Software as a Service(SaaS)

Available anywhere always

Any device

Every browser


is the basic service. The organisation is provided with remote servers, storage capacity and other hardware in the cloud. Saves the organisation space and hardware investments. It is easy to scale up or down. You only pay for what you use.

Platform as a Service

The customers of PaaS providers can build, run and manage applications, themselves, without much complexity. The organisation need not invest in building and maintaining the architecture of the platform. This is incorporated into the service making it faster to assemble an application when compared to traditional software building.

Software as a Service

Ready-to-use applications that are accessed online via subscriptions fall under this category.

Many of the (SaaS) run from a web-browser or mobile app and do not require a local installation. It is also known ason-demand software, which is the easiest to understand with the example of streaming of services in mind.

Digital Marketing

1. Content Marketing: This is the present and future of marketing. This refers to a strategic marketing approach, which focuses on creating and distributing valuable, relevant and consistent content to attract and retain a clearly defined audience and ultimately, to attract profitable customer action. Actually, content marketing provides relevant and useful informative content to customers to help them solve their issues. It is used by many prominent organisations, including Microsoft, CISCO systems and John Deere.

2. Search Engine Optimization: It is a process of getting traffic from the “Free” “Organic” “Editorial” or “Natural” search results on search engines. All major search engines such as Google and Bing have primary search results, where web pages and other content such as videos, images or local listings are shown and ranked based on what the search engine considers most relevant to users. You can subscribe to news stories from Daily SEO NEWS and to receive SEO related tips, news and tactics from Search Engine Land subscribe to GET SEO NEWS.

3. Social Media Marketing: It consists of the use of social media platforms to connect with your audience to build your brand, which will increase sales and create website traffic. The major social media platforms are Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, LinkedIn, Pin interest, You tube and snapchat, as of now. Buffer is a social media management tool that helps to achieve success with social media marketing. The 5 pillars of social media marketing are:

a. Strategy

b. Planning and publishing

c. Listening and engagement

d. Analytics and reporting

e. Advertising.

4. Search Engine Marketing: It is a form of internet marketing that involves the promotion of websites by making them prominently visible in search engine result pages (SERPs). It is done through paid advertising. SEM may include (Search Engine Optimisation) which rewrites website content and site architecture sot that it achieves higher ranking in search engine result pages to increase Pay Per Click (PPC) listings.

5. Pay Per Click advertising (PPC): PPC is a model of inter net banking in which advertisers pay a fee each time one of their advertisements is clicked. Search Engine advertising is one of the most popular forms of PPC. It permits advertisers to bid to place their advertisement in search engine sponsored links when a client searches a keyword related to their business offering. Google advertisements operate on a Pay -Per-Click model in which users bid on key words and pay for each click on their advertisements.

6. Affiliate Marketing: This type of marketing is a process of earning a commission by promoting other people’s or company’s products. The idea behind this process is to promote other people’s products, through an affiliate network. When it comes to actual marketing, there are two sides of an affiliate equation – (1) The product creator and (2) The affiliate marketer. Affiliate Marketing can be described as a process of spreading creation and product marketing across various parties, where each party receives a share of the revenue according to their contributors. You can be both the creator and the marketer and still profit from the underlying idea of sharing revenue.

7. Email Marketing: This marketing makes the use of email to promote products or services in the process of developing relationships with potential customers. When a company sends out an email, for order confirmations and direct responses to customer questions, it can be referred to as email marketing. It is a part of internet marketing which covers online marketing via websites, social media, blogs etc. It can include newsletters with updates of news briefings of the company. It allows businesses to keep their customers informed. Two advantages of email marketing are Price and Ease.

8. Radio advertising: This is buying commercials, frequently called ‘Spots’ in the radio industry, to promote their products or services. Advertisers pay commercial radio stations for airtime and, in exchange the radio station broadcasts the advertiser’s commercial to its listening audience.

Radio advertising reaches intended audience without guess work. It is an economical method of


9. Television Advertising: This involves three main tasks. 1. Creating a television advertisement that meets broadcast standards. 2.Placing the advertisement on television to reach the desired customers 3. Measuring the result of these advertisements including the return on investment. One of the biggest advantages of Television advertisements is the ability to call out to your potential customers, just like tapping them on their shoulder and saying, “Hey, come look at this.” It combines sight and sound. The visual effect fosters emotion and empathy.

10. Event Promotion: It is a virtual networking event. It provides an event space where each speaker or audience can have a deep chat on specific topics. Having individual rooms or tables of business meet-up or discussion groups. It provides separate networking space for business chat, Break out session, Virtual room/Table privacy. A professionally designed website can be an excellent promotion tool, allowing businesses to inexpensively post up-to-date information on products and services. Social media is a popular, inexpensive form of online business promotion.

11. Product Marketing: This is the process of bringing a product to market and viewing its overall success. It focuses on understanding and marketing to customers. The role of product marketing sits at the intersection of Product, Sales and Marketing. Product Marketing ensures that (a) A product and its new features are appropriately positioned in the market. (b) Sales and marketing teams have all the necessary knowledge and materials to enable them to attract new customers. (c) The product can satisfy the target audience’s needs. (d) Product demand and adoption are on continuous rise. (e)The product remains relevant as markets evolve.

12. Online Reputation Management: (ORM) ORM is about monitoring and improving how your business is viewed online. It means looking and analysing what a potential customer, reporter or partner will discover about your brand, your people or your product/service when they perform a Google search.

13. Instant Messaging Marketing: This is perhaps one of the best and most effective methods of advertising. It is not just text-based communication. It allows the use of images as well as videos to be shared and can even be used to hire taxis/cabs or order food. This method engages us in a way no other communication method really does. Communication is quick. There is no other method which promises with the same level of certainty that your messages will be read.